Central heating - history
The ancient Greeks originally developed central heating. The Temple of Ephesus was heated by Flues planted in the ground and circulating the heat which was generated by fire. Some buildings in the Roman Empire used central heating systems, conducting air heated by furnaces through empty spaces under the floors and out of pipes in the walls?a system known as a hypocaust.23
The Roman hypocaust continued to be used on a smaller scale during late Antiquity and by the Umayyad caliphate, while later Muslim builders employed a simpler system of underfloor pipes.4
After the collapse of the Roman Empire, overwhelmingly across Europe, heating reverted to more primitive fireplaces for almost a thousand years.
In the early medieval Alpine upland, a simpler central heating system where heat travelled through underfloor channels from the furnace room replaced the Roman hypocaust at some places. In Reichenau Abbey a network of interconnected underfloor channels heated the 300 m? large assembly room of the monks during the winter months. The degree of efficiency of the system has been calculated at 90%.5
In the 13th century, the Cistercian monks revived central heating in Christian Europe using river diversions combined with indoor wood-fired furnaces. The well-preserved Royal Monastery of Our Lady of the Wheel (founded 1202) on the Ebro River in the Aragon region of Spain provides an excellent example of such an application.
Where to find specialists in the field of hydraulics?
Sometimes a good plumber can ensure we get rid of the very serious problem which causes huge inconvenience and reduces our comfort. Not all professionals are honest and do your work as it should, so choosing an appropriate expert, take advantage of advice and reduce the risk of fraudulent accomplishment of work. The best for this purpose chat with friends who have used the services of hydraulic, but if we do not have such a possibility, we can look for tips on the Internet. You'll find specific forums or pages on which we read different opinions, and this will allow us to select a proven service, which will provide a high standard of service.
Worth to know
A drain cleaner is a chemical-based consumer product that unblocks sewer pipes or helps to prevent the occurrence of clogged drains. The term may also refer to the individual who uses performs the activity with chemical drain cleaners or devices known as plumber's snake. Drain cleaners can be classified in two categories: chemical, or device.
If a single sink, toilet, or tub or shower drain is clogged the first choice is normally a drain cleaner that can remove soft obstructions such as hair and grease clogs that can accumulate close to interior drain openings. Chemical drain cleaners, plungers, handheld drain augers, air burst drain cleaners, and home remedy drain cleaners are intended for this purpose.
If more than one plumbing fixture is clogged the first choice is normally a drain cleaner that can remove soft or hard obstructions along the entire length of the drain, from the drain opening through the main sewer drain to the lateral piping outside the building. Electric drain cleaners and sewer jetters are intended for this purpose.
Each type of drain cleaner has advantages, disadvantages, and safety considerations as described below.